Version 1.1, March 2000
Copyright © 2000
Free Software Foundation, Inc.
59 Temple Place, Suite 330,
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license
document, but changing it is not allowed.
- 0. PREAMBLE
The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
written document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone
the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without
modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily,
this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get
credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for
modifications made by others.
This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It
complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
license designed for free software.
We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free
software, because free software needs free documentation: a free
program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the
software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it
can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or
whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License
principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.
- 1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
This License applies to any manual or other work that contains a
notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed
under the terms of this License. The "Document" , below, refers to any such
manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is
addressed as "you".
A "Modified Version" of the
Document means any work containing the Document or a portion of it,
either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated into
A "Secondary Section" is a named
appendix or a front-matter section of the Document that deals exclusively with the
relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject (or to
related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within
that overall subject. (For example, if the Document is in part a textbook of
mathematics, a Secondary Section
may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter
of historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or
of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position
The "Invariant Sections" are
certain Secondary Sections whose
titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that
says that the Document is released
under this License.
The "Cover Texts" are certain
short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that
says that the Document is released
under this License.
A "Transparent" copy of the
Document means a machine-readable
copy, represented in a format whose specification is available to the
general public, whose contents can be viewed and edited directly and
straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of
pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available
drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or
for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input
to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose markup
has been designed to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by
readers is not Transparent. A
copy that is not "Transparent"
is called "Opaque".
Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML
or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple
HTML designed for human modification. Opaque formats include
PostScript, PDF, proprietary formats that can be read and edited only
by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or
processing tools are not generally available, and the
machine-generated HTML produced by some word processors for output
The "Title Page" means, for a
printed book, the title page itself, plus such following pages as are
needed to hold, legibly, the material this License requires to appear
in the title page. For works in formats which do not have any title
page as such, "Title Page"
means the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title,
preceding the beginning of the body of the text.
- 2. VERBATIM COPYING
You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies
to the Document are reproduced in
all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those
of this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or
control the reading or further copying of the copies you make or
distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange for
copies. If you distribute a large enough number of copies you must
also follow the conditions in section
You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and
you may publicly display copies.
- 3. COPYING IN QUANTITY
If you publish printed copies of the Document numbering more than 100, and
the Document's license notice
requires Cover Texts, you must
enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all
these Cover Texts: Front-Cover
Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both
covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of
these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all
words of the title equally prominent and visible. You may add other
material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes limited to
the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions,
can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects.
If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent
If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100, you
must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each
Opaque copy, or state in or
with each Opaque copy a
publicly-accessible computer-network location containing a complete
Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material, which
the general network-using public has access to download anonymously at
no charge using public-standard network protocols. If you use the
latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin
distribution of Opaque copies
in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus
accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the
last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your
agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.
It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the
Document well before
redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance to
provide you with an updated version of the Document.
- 4. MODIFICATIONS
You may copy and distribute a Modified
Version of the Document
under the conditions of sections 2
and 3 above, provided that you
release the Modified Version under
precisely this License, with the Modified
Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution
and modification of the Modified
Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you
must do these things in the Modified
Use in the Title Page (and
on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the Document, and from those of
previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in
the History section of the Document). You may use the same
title as a previous version if the original publisher of that
version gives permission.
List on the Title Page, as
authors, one or more persons or entities responsible for
authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version, together with at
least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal
authors, if it has less than five).
State on the Title Page
the name of the publisher of the Modified Version, as the
Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
adjacent to the other copyright notices.
Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license
notice giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms
of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required
Cover Texts given in the
Document's license notice.
Include an unaltered copy of this License.
Preserve the section entitled "History", and its title, and add
to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and
publisher of the Modified Version
as given on the Title
Page. If there is no section entitled "History" in the
Document, create one stating
the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item
describing the Modified
Version as stated in the previous sentence.
Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to a
Transparent copy of the
Document, and likewise the
network locations given in the Document for previous versions it
was based on. These may be placed in the "History" section. You
may omit a network location for a work that was published at
least four years before the Document itself, or if the
original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
In any section entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications",
preserve the section's title, and preserve in the section all
the substance and tone of each of the contributor
acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.
Preserve all the Invariant
Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text
and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not
considered part of the section titles.
Delete any section entitled "Endorsements". Such a section may
not be included in the Modified
Do not retitle any existing section as "Endorsements" or to
conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
If the Modified Version includes
new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no
material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate
some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their
titles to the list of Invariant
Sections in the Modified
Version's license notice. These titles must be distinct from
any other section titles.
You may add a section entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains
nothing but endorsements of your Modified
Version by various parties--for example, statements of peer
review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the
authoritative definition of a standard.
You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up
to 25 words as a Back-Cover
Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of
Front-Cover Text and one of
Back-Cover Text may be added by
(or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text
for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by
the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another;
but you may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the
previous publisher that added the old one.
The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give
permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply
endorsement of any Modified Version
- 5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS
You may combine the Document with
other documents released under this License, under the terms defined
in section 4 above for modified
versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the
Invariant Sections of all of the
original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined
work in its license notice.
The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
multiple identical Invariant
Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are
multiple Invariant Sections with
the same name but different contents, make the title of each such
section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of
the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a
unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the
list of Invariant Sections in the
license notice of the combined work.
In the combination, you must combine any sections entitled "History"
in the various original documents, forming one section entitled
"History"; likewise combine any sections entitled "Acknowledgements",
and any sections entitled "Dedications". You must delete all sections
- 6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released
under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License
in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the
collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for
verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.
You may extract a single document from such a collection, and
distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a
copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this
License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that
- 7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
A compilation of the Document or
its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or
works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, does not
as a whole count as a Modified
Version of the Document,
provided no compilation copyright is claimed for the compilation.
Such a compilation is called an "aggregate", and this License does not
apply to the other self-contained works thus compiled with the Document , on account of their being
thus compiled, if they are not themselves derivative works of the
Document. If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies
of the Document, then if the Document is less than one quarter of the
entire aggregate, the Document's
Cover Texts may be placed on
covers that surround only the Document within the aggregate. Otherwise
they must appear on covers around the whole aggregate.
- 8. TRANSLATION
Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations
requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may
include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
original versions of these Invariant
Sections. You may include a translation of this License
provided that you also include the original English version of this
License. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the
original English version of this License, the original English version
- 9. TERMINATION
You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided
for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify, sublicense
or distribute the Document is
void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this
License. However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from
you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long
as such parties remain in full compliance.
- 10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the
GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions
will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in
detail to address new problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.
Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version
number. If the Document specifies
that a particular numbered version of this License "or any later
version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and
conditions either of that specified version or of any later version
that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software
Foundation. If the Document does
not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any
version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software
To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
the License in the document and put the following copyright and
license notices just after the title page:
Copyright © YEAR YOUR NAME.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or
any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with the
Invariant Sections being LIST
THEIR TITLES, with the Front-Cover
Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST. A copy
of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free
If you have no Invariant
Sections, write "with no Invariant Sections" instead of saying
which ones are invariant. If you have no Front-Cover Texts, write "no
Front-Cover Texts" instead of "Front-Cover Texts being LIST"; likewise
for Back-Cover Texts.
If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
free software license, such as the GNU General Public
License, to permit their use in free software.